Circular dichroism of anthocyanidin 3-glucoside self-aggregates
Raquel Gavara, Vesselin Petrov, Alexandre Quintas, Fernando Pina
Self-association constants for the flavylium cations of the six most common anthocyanidin 3-glucosides were determined by circular dichroism (CD) and UV–Vis spectroscopy. Along with previous 1H NMR results, all measurements were consistent with a monomer–dimer model. The CD spectra of the anthocyanidin 3-glucosides were similar to the analogues 3,5-diglucosides. All dimers of the anthocyanidin 3-glucosides exhibited left-handed CD signals, with petunidin-3-glucoside and myrtillin having the most intense signals. In addition, the magnitude of the molar ellipticity, [θ], was generally higher for the 3-glucosides than for the 3,5-diglucosides. For all six anthocyanins studied, the CD absorption spectra of their dimers showed evidence of the splitting of the monomer absorption into lower (J aggregates) and higher (H aggregates) energy bands. The angle and the distance between the dipolar moments of the two monomers comprising the dimer were obtained from the lower energy absorption band. While the angle was more or less similar in all six dimers, the separation distance between the monomer dipole moments differed dramatically. The intensity of the CD signal displayed a linear dependence with the inverse square of the dipole moment distances.
Circular dichroism, Stereochemistry