Comparative analysis of the chemical treatments used in keratin extraction from red sheep’s hair and the cell viability evaluations of this keratin for tissue engineering applications
Kadathur Ramachandran Ramya, Ramar Thangam, Balaraman Madhan
Hair waste is one of the solid substances rejected by the leather industry. This waste finds its way into the surroundings causing serious environmental pollution. This hair waste may be utilized for effective extraction of keratin, thereby generating value-added products with numerous applications. Thus we focusing on utilizing red sheep’s hair waste for extracting keratin by the application of different chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, mercaptoethanol, cysteine, sodium metabisulfite with urea (SMB), and SMB with SDS (SMBS). CD spectrum and FTIR results of the keratin samples indicated a predominance of the helical conformation along with β sheets. SDS-PAGE confirmed the molecular weight of the keratin samples to be in the range of 40–60 kDa. DSC and TGA analysis exhibited the extracted keratin to have a higher denaturation temperature (>200 °C) and thermal stability. The keratin samples obtained using varied chemical treatments were compared in terms of yield, protein content, and cost-effectiveness, and the sample obtained using SMBS was preferred for in vitro studies. It is indicated that keratin extracted using SMBS effectively involved for fibroblast cell growth. Thus, we suggest that these keratin could produce biomaterials that can serve as a valuable material for biomedical applications.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Biochemistry