Development of a gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric sensor for the indirect determination of ammonium dinitramide and tetryl
Fatma Mamatioğlu; Ayşem Üzer; EErol Erçağ; Reşat Apak
Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is a strong, environmentally friendly oxidizer used in composite solid rocket propellants. As there is no reliable colorimetric sensor for ADN assay applicable to in-field screening, we developed a sensitive and practical sensing method to determine it in the presence of other explosives and possible interferents, based on the detection of nitrite formed from ADN degradation under UV light in a slightly alkaline (i.e. of lower alkalinity than needed to hydrolyze nitramines) solution by a nanoparticle-based colorimetric sensor. The ADN-derived nitrite formed a colored product via a Griess reaction using gold nanoparticles modified with 4â€“aminothiophenol (4-ATP-AuNPs) along with a coupling reagent N-(1-naphthyl)ethylene diamine (NED) for forming an azo dye. The method used for ADN detection could also be applied to tetryl samples at a different wavelength. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.012Â mgÂ Lâˆ’1 for ADN and 0.615Â mgÂ Lâˆ’1 for tetryl. Interference effects of energetic materials like trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) to ADN determination could be overcome. In addition, common soil ions did not adversely affect the nanosensor performance. The developed method was statistically validated against reference voltammetric, UV, and HPLC methods using t- and F- tests.
Ammonium dinitramide detection, Tetryl detection, Nitrite sensor, Propellants, Explosives, Gold nanoparticles