Differential Metal Ion Sensing by an Antipyrine Derivative in Aqueous and β-Cyclodextrin Media: Selectivity Tuning by β-Cyclodextrin
Govindaraj Tamil Selvan, Sumathi Poomalai, Sivaraj Ramasamy, Paulraj Mosae Selvakumar, Israel V Muthu Vijayan Enoch, Sara Gracia Lanas, Andrea Melchior
β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) is a nontoxic cyclic oligosachcharide that can encapsulate all or part of organic molecules of appropriate size and specific shape through noncovalent interaction. Herein, we report the influence of β-CD complex formation of an antipyrine derivative on its metal ion sensing behavior. In aqueous solution, the antipyrine shows a turn-on fluorescence sensing of vanadyl ion, and in cyclodextrin medium it senses aluminum ion. The compound shows an unusual fluorescence quenching on binding with β-cyclodextrin (log KSV = 2.34 ± 0.02). The differential metal ion sensing is due to the partial blocking of the chelating moiety by the cyclodextrin molecule. The structure of the antipyrine–cyclodextrin complex is optimized by two-dimensional rotating-frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy. The binding constant is determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (log K = 2.09 ± 0.004). The metal ion binding site is optimized by quanutm mechanical calculations. The lower limit of detection of vanadyl and aluminum ions, respectively, are 5 × 10–8 and 5 × 10–7 mol dm–3. This is the first report of selectivity of two different cations by a chemosensor in water and in β-CD.
Fluorescence, Optical properties, Ligand binding, Quenching, Sensors, Organic chemistry