Eco-friendly synthesis of ionic helical polymers and their chemical properties and reactivity
Isao Yamaguchi, Yuki Tanaka, Aohan Wang
Reaction of N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)pyridinium chloride (salt(Cl−)) with sodium dicyanamide (Na(CN)2N) resulted in anion exchange between Cl− and (CN)2N− to yield a new Zincke salt, salt((CN)2N−). Reactions of salt((CN)2N−) with piperazine, specifically (R)-(−)- or (S)-(+)-2-methylpiperazine under eco-friendly conditions, such as in aqueous solution, in the absence of a catalyst, and at room temperature, resulted in pyridinium ring opening to yield ionic high-molecular-weight polymers with 5-2,4-dienylideneammonium dicyanamide units or chiral 5-(2-methylpiperazinium)-2,4-dienylideneammonium dicyanamide units, namely, polymer(H;(CN)2N−), polymer(R-Me;(CN)2N−), and polymer(S-Me;(CN)2N−). UV-Vis measurements revealed that the π-conjugation system expanded along the polymer chain due to the orbital interaction between the electrons on the two nitrogen atoms of the piperazinium ring. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements revealed a helical conformation of the main chain in polymer(R-Me;(CN)2N−) and polymer(S-Me;(CN)2N−). The reaction of polymer(H;(CN)2N−) with p-phenylenediamine (PDA) caused recyclization of the 2,4-dienylideneammonium unit and resulted in depolymerization to yield N-(4-aminophenyl)pyridinium dicyanamide. Cyclic voltammetry analysis suggested that the polymers obtained in this study undergo electrochemical oxidation and reduction.
Circular dichroism, Cotton effect, Polymers