Experimentally and theoretically approaches for disperse red 60 dye adsorption on novel quaternary nanocomposites
A comprehensive study that combined both experimental and computational experiments was performed to evaluate the usage of organo-metal oxide nanocomposite for the elimination of disperse red 60 dye (DR) from aqueous solutions. Chitosan was modified by Schiff base to form nanoneedles chitosan-4-chloroacetophenone derivative. The derivatives were then impregnated with CeO2–CuO–Fe2O3 or CeO2–CuO–Al2O3 metal oxides to prepare a novel quarternary organo-metal oxide nanocomposite. The novel nanocomposite, chitosan-4-chloroacetophenone/CeO2–CuO–Fe2O3 (CF) and chitosan-4-chloroacetophenone/CeO2–CuO–Al2O3 (CA) are cheap and effective nano adsorbents that can be used for the uptake of DR from aqueous solution. The CF and CA nano-composites were characterized using different techniques. Moreover, the effect of adsorption parameters (initial DR concentration, time of contact, pH, temperature, and adsorbent mass) as well as CA and CF reusability tests were performed. Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were best fitted with the adsorption process. The maximum amount of DR adsorbed was 100 mg/g on CF and CA at pH 2 and 4, respectively with a physical spontaneous, and exothermic adsorption process. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies indicated the adsorption of DR molecule on the CF and CA surfaces following a parallel mode in most of all studied configurations, confirming the strong interactions between the DR and surfaces atoms of CF and CA. The molecular structure analysis of DR dye adsorbed on the surface of CF and CA indicated that the adsorption process related to Van der Waals dispersion force. Consequently, this helps to trap DR dye molecules on the surface of CF and CA (i.e., physical adsorption), which supports our experimental results.