Formation of environmentally stable hole-doped graphene films with instantaneous and high-density carrier doping via a boron-based oxidant
Kaito Kanahashi, Naoki Tanaka, Yoshiaki Shoji, Mina Maruyama, Il Jeon, Kenji Kawahara, Masatou Ishihara, Masataka Hasegawa, Hiromichi Ohta, Hiroki Ago, Yutaka Matsuo, Susumu Okada, Takanori Fukushima & Taishi Takenobu
npj 2D Mater Appl 3, 7 (2019)
Large-area graphene films have substantial potential for use as next-generation electrodes because of their good chemical stability, high flexibility, excellent carrier mobility, and lightweight structure. However, various issues remain unsolved. In particular, high-density carrier doping within a short time by a simple method, and air stability of doped graphene films, are highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate a solution-based high-density (>1014 cm−2) hole doping approach that promises to push the performance limit of graphene films. The reaction of graphene films with a tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate salt, containing a two-coordinate boron cation, achieves doping within an extremely short time (4 s), and the doped graphene films are air stable for at least 31 days. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the graphene films are covered by the chemically stable anions, resulting in an improved stability in air. Moreover, the doping reduces the transmittance by only 0.44 ± 0.23%. The simplicity of the doping process offers a viable route to the large-scale production of functional graphene electrodes.
tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate salt, graphene films