Functional analysis of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase catalytic residue mutants using surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism
Eric S. Goetzman, Miao He, Tien V. Nguyen, Jerry Vockley
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs) are a family of flavoenzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids. The ACDs share a similar structure and a common dehydrogenation mechanism in which a catalytic glutamate extracts a proton from an acyl-CoA substrate. The resulting charge-transfer complex subsequently passes electrons to electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF). We previously generated catalytic residue mutants of human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) that were difficult to characterize by traditional methods. In the present study, we developed a novel surface plasmon resonance-based assay to measure substrate binding to these mutants. Replacement of the catalytic glutamate in either SCAD or IVD with glycine resulted in a several-fold reduction in affinity for substrate. Circular dichroism studies substantiated our earlier findings that both SCAD E368G and IVD E254G are unable to form a charge-transfer complex with substrate/product. The CD spectra of IVD E254G also indicated a perturbation of the flavin environment, a finding supported by molecular modeling that predicted a shift in the conformation of a conserved tryptophan that lies in close proximity to the flavin. Lastly, competitive inhibition studies using the ETF fluorescence reduction assay suggested that SCAD E368G and IVD E254G do not effectively compete with the wild-type enzymes for the physiological electron acceptor ETF.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Ligand binding, Medicinal, Biochemistry