Identification and Characterization of a Redox Sensor Phosphodiesterase from Ferrovum sp. PN-J185 Containing Bacterial Hemerythrin and HD-GYP Domains
The second messenger bis(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous important physiological functions in bacteria. In this study, we identified and characterized the first dimeric, full-length, non-heme iron-bound phosphodiesterase (PDE) containing bacterial hemerythrin and HD-GYP domains (Bhr-HD-GYP). We found that the amino acid sequence encoded by the FV185_09380 gene from Ferrovum sp. PN-J185 contains an N-terminal bacterial hemerythrin domain and a C-terminal HD-GYP domain, which is characteristic of proteins with PDE activity toward c-di-GMP. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analyses showed that Bhr-HD-GYP contains 4 equiv of iron atoms per subunit, suggesting both hemerythrin and HD-GYP domains have non-heme di-iron sites. A redox-dependent spectral change expected for oxo-bridged non-heme iron with carboxylate ligands was observed, and this redox interconversion was reversible. However, unlike marine invertebrate hemerythrin, which functions as an oxygen-binding protein, Bhr-HD-GYP did not form an oxygen adduct because of rapid autoxidation. The reduced ferrous iron complex of the protein catalyzed the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP to its linearized product, 5′-phosphoguanylyl-(3′,5′)-guanosine (pGpG), whereas the oxidized ferric iron complex had no significant activity. These results suggest that Bhr-HD-GYP is a redox and oxygen sensor enzyme that regulates c-di-GMP levels in response to changes in cellular redox status or oxygen concentration. Our study may lead to an improved understanding of the physiology of iron-oxidizing bacterium Ferrovum sp. PN-J185.
Absorption, Chemical stability, Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Biochemistry