Immunological and antibiofilm property of haemocyanin purified from grooved tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus): An in vitro and in silico approach
Ramachandran Ishwarya, ArokiadasIswarya, Vijayaragavan Thangaviji, Jayachandran Sivakamavalli, Maria Angeles Esteban, Merlin P. Thangaraj, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
Haemocyanin (Hc) is a non-specific innate immune protein present in the haemolymph of arthropods and molluscs. In the current study, we characterized the structural and immunological properties of Hc from grooved tiger shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. Hc was isolated from the haemolymph of P. semisulcatus by gel filtration column chromatography using Sephadex G-100. High-performance liquid chromatography of the purified Hc emerged as a single peak through a retention time of 3. min demonstrating the homogeneity nature of the protein. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a distinct peak at 31.7° indicating the crystalline character of the purified Hc. Circular dichroism spectra of the purified Hc displayed negative ellipticity bands close to 225 nm and 208 nm representing β-sheet secondary structure. The purified Hc agglutinated sheep RBCs, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungal Candida albicans. In addition, the purified Hc displayed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus pumilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus) with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 50 μg/ml. Antibiofilm activity revealed the potential of purified Hc to inhibit biofilm formation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, live/dead staining of biofilms demonstrated the reduced viability of bacterial cells after exposure to the purified Hc. In silico molecular modeling was carried out using the sequence of Hc from SwissProt and molecular docking was performed with the cell surface components found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall our study demonstrates the involvement of Hc in the native immune reaction of P. semisulcatus by eliciting pathogen recognition. Thus, Hc could enhance disease resistance against pathogenic infection in shrimp aquaculture.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Biochemistry