In vivo and in vitro studies on inactivation of selenium containing protein- glutathione peroxidase 3 in mice nephrocytes caused by lead
Hao Zhang, Lingyu Luan, Mengjiao Bi, Lining Zhao, Lin Yuan, Jia Feng, Rutao Liu
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) play vital roles in elimination of hydroperoxide and other reactive oxygen species through catalyzing reduced glutathione to protect from oxidative stress caused by heavy metals such as lead. Among the family of Gpxs, Gpx3 is the only extracellular enzyme synthesized in the kidney and actively secreted into the plasma. This study investigated mechanisms of lead-induced GPx3 inactivation both at the animal and molecular levels. Six-week-old mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, and exposed to different lead concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 g/L) in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Contents of GPx3 in blood serum were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of Gpx3 in mice nephrocytes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), both of which showed significantly inhibited at higher lead concentrations accompanied by the decreased Gpx3 activities and the elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in nephrocytes, which indicated that lead could induce strongly oxidative stress through affecting Gpx3 function. So we further investigated molecular mechanisms of GPx3 inactivation caused by lead with multiple spectroscopic techniques, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking studies in vitro. Results showed that lead statically quenched GPx3 fluorescence by tightly binding to the structural domain of GPx3 in a 3:1 ratio with high binding affinity (K = 3.1(±0.087) × 107 mol−1). Further investigation of the conformation of GPx3 by UV–visible spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy indicated that lead changed the secondary structure of GPx3 by loosening the GPx3 skeleton and decreasing the hydrophobicity around tryptophan residues. This work proved in vivo and in vitro experiments that lead could induce oxidative stress in mice nephrocytes by interacting with GPx3.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Chemical stability, Protein folding, Biochemistry