Insights into the effects of N-glycosylation on the characteristics of the VC1 domain of the human receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) secreted by Pichia pastoris
Genny Degani, Alberto Barbiroli, Paula Magnelli, Stefania Digiovanni, Alessandra Altomare, Giancarlo Aldini, Laura Popolo
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs), resulting from non-enzymatic modifications of proteins, are potentially harmful to human health. They directly act on proteins, affecting structure and function, or through receptor-mediated mechanisms. RAGE, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, was identified as a receptor for AGEs. RAGE is involved in chronic inflammation, oxidative stress-based diseases and ageing. The majority of RAGE ligands bind to the VC1 domain. This domain was successfully expressed and secreted by Pichia pastoris. Out of two N-glycosylation sites, one (Asn25) was fully occupied while the other (Asn81) was under-glycosylated, generating two VC1 variants, named p36 and p34. Analysis of N-glycans and of their influence on VC1 properties were here investigated. The highly sensitive procainamide labeling method coupled to ES-MS was used for N-glycan profiling. N-glycans released from VC1 ranged from Man9GlcNAc2- to Man15GlcNAc2- with major Man10GlcNAc2- and Man11GlcNAc2- species for p36 and p34, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra indicated that VC1 maintains the same conformation also after removal of N-glycans. Thermal denaturation curves showed that the carbohydrate moiety has a small stabilizing effect on VC1 protein conformation. The removal of the glycan moiety did not affect the binding of VC1 to sugar-derived AGE- or malondialdehyde-derived ALE-human serum albumin. Given the crucial role of RAGE in human pathologies, the features of VC1 from P. pastoris will prove useful in designing strategies for the enrichment of AGEs/ALEs from plasma, urine or tissues, and in characterizing the nature of the interaction.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Chemical stability, Thermal stability, Protein folding, Thermodynamics, Biochemistry