Interactions of boron released from surface pre-reacted glass ionomer with enamel/dentin and its effect on pH
This study investigated the interaction of borate ions released from surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) fillers with the biological apatites of enamel and dentin using solid-state (SS) magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy analysis. We further evaluated the effect of borate ions on the pH change. Bovine enamel and dentin powder were submerged in S-PRG eluate (with borate ion concentration of 100 mM) for 3 h, then washed with deionized water (DW). The dried enamel and dentin specimens were used for 11B SS-NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Enamel and dentin blocks were treated with three solutions: DW (control), S-PRG eluent and borate solution (100 mM). The treated samples were submerged in the demineralization solution and the pH was measured using a pH meter daily for 6 days. The surfaces of the enamel and dentin blocks were then observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). SS-NMR analysis revealed the presence of adsorbed borate ions in the enamel and dentin samples in a tetra-coordinated form. The pH results demonstrated an increase in pH values in the S-PRG and borate groups. SEM images showed that the surfaces of the control group were demineralized, whereas the surfaces of the S-PRG and borate groups were intact. These results concluded that borate ions could be adsorbed to enamel and dentin in the tetra-coordinated form. Borate ions possess a buffer capacity which may help to protect the tooth structure against acid attacks and promote remineralization.
Dpb4, ATPase, DNA, Saccharomyces cerevisiae