Nanoarmoring of Enzymes by Interlocking in Cellulose Fibers With Poly(Acrylic Acid)
Caterina M. Riccardi, Rajeswari M. Kasi, Challa V. Kumar
Methods in Enzymology
A simple method for interlocking glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in cellulose fibers using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as an armor around the enzyme, without any need for activation of the cellulose support, is reported here. The resulting enzyme paper is an inexpensive, stable, simple, wearable, and washable biosensor. PAA functions as a multifunctional tether to interlock the enzyme molecules around the paper fibers so that the enzymes are protected against thermal/chemical denaturation and not released from the paper when washed with a detergent. The decreased conformational entropy of the interlocked enzyme protected by the nanoarmor is likely responsible for increased enzyme stability to heat and chemical denaturants (retained ≥ 70 percent enzyme activity after washing with urea or SDS for 30 min), and the polymer protects the enzyme against inactivation by proteases, bacteria, inhibitors, etc. The kinetics of the interlocked enzyme were similar to that of the enzyme in solution. The Vmax was 6(± 0.5) mM per minute before washing, then increased slightly to 9(± 1.4) mM per minute after washing with water. The Km was 22(± 6.4 mM), which was slightly higher compared to GOx in solution (25–27 mM). Because the surface area of the paper does not limit the enzyme loading, about 20% of enzyme was successfully loaded onto the paper (0.2 g enzyme per gram of paper), and ≥ 95% of the enzyme was retained after washing. Interlocking works with other enzymes such as laccase, where ≥ 60% of the enzyme activity is retained. This novel methodology provides a low cost, simple, modular approach of achieving high enzyme loadings in ordinary filter paper, not limited by cellulose surface area, and there has been no need for complex methods of enzyme engineering or toxic methods of activation of the solid support to prepare highly active biocatalysts.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Chemical stability, Nanostructures, Biochemistry, Materials