Optimal Composition of Li Argyrodite with Harmonious Conductivity and Chemical/Electrochemical Stability: Fine-Tuned Via Tandem Particle Swarm Optimization
Chan-Cuk Hwang, Docheon Ahn, Sangil Han, Kyusung Park, Kee-Sun Sohn, Myoungho Pyo
A tandem (two-step) particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is implemented in the argyrodite-based multidimensional composition space for the discovery of an optimal argyrodite composition, i.e., with the highest ionic conductivity (7.78 mS cm−1). To enhance the industrial adaptability, an elaborate pellet preparation procedure is not used. The optimal composition (Li5.5PS4.5Cl0.89Br0.61) is fine-tuned to enhance its practical viability by incorporating oxygen in a stepwise manner. The final composition (Li5.5PS4.23O0.27Cl0.89Br0.61), which exhibits an ionic conductivity (σion) of 6.70 mS cm−1 and an activation barrier of 0.27 eV, is further characterized by analyzing both its moisture and electrochemical stability. Relative to the other compositions, the exposure of Li5.5PS4.23O0.27Cl0.89Br0.61 to a humid atmosphere results in the least amount of H2S released and a negligible change in structure. The improvement in the interfacial stability between the Li(Ni0.9Co0.05Mn0.05)O2 cathode and Li5.5PS4.23O0.27Cl0.89Br0.61 also results in greater specific capacity during fast charge/discharge. The structural and chemical features of Li5.5PS4.5Cl0.89Br0.61 and Li5.5PS4.23O0.27Cl0.89Br0.61 argyrodites are characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This work presents a novel argyrodite composition with favorably balanced properties while providing broad insights into material discovery methodologies with applications for battery development.
electrochemical stability, battery