Poly-γ-Glutamate Microneedles as Transdermal Immunomodulators for Ameliorating Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Nc/Nga mice
Mei-Chin Chen, Chia-Sui Chen, Yan-Wei Wu, Yin-Yin Yang
Atopic dermatitis (AD), a common, relapsing, inflammatory disorder of the skin, is associated with T helper type 2 (Th2)-biased immune responses. Despite the efficacy of existing drugs for AD treatment, their safety and side effects cause concern. The present study describes the use of dissolvable poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) microneedles (MNs) with immunomodulatory effects for effectively relieving AD-like symptoms in Nc/Nga mice. γ-PGA MNs can easily penetrate the epidermis and release γ-PGA into the dendritic cell–rich Ncdermis to interact with dendritic cells for modulating immune responses. Transdermal administration of high-molecular-weight (HMW, 1100 kDa) γ-PGA MNs significantly reduced clinical dermatitis scores, epidermal thickness, and mast cell infiltration in mice by downregulating immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG1 levels (Th2-associated antibodies) compared with the AD control group. However, low-molecular-weight (200-400 kDa) γ-PGA MNs ameliorated AD-like skin lesions less effectively than HMW γ-PGA MNs, thus indicating that the MW of γ-PGA may affect its immunomodulatory properties. Notably, the mouse skin quickly recovered its barrier function within 4 h after MN application. No weight loss or abnormality was observed in the MN-treated mice during the 8-week treatment period. These results suggest that the γ-PGA MNs represent an innovative, safe, and reliable therapeutic strategy for AD management.
Circular dichroism, Protein stability, Secondary structure, Biochemistry, Materials