Synthesis, G-Quadruplex DNA binding and cytotoxic properties of naphthalimide substituted styryl dyes
Ming-Qi Wang, Yi-Fan Liao, Shu-Hui Zhang, Quan-Qi Yu, Jin-Qiu Huang
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
G-Quadruplex DNAs, formed by G-rich DNA sequences in human genes, are promising targets for design of cancer drugs. In this study, two naphthalimide substituted styryl dyes with different sizes of aromatic groups were synthesized. The spectral analysis showed that the dye X-2 with a large aromatic group formed aggregates in buffer solution displaying very weak fluorescence intensity, and disaggregated in the presence of G-Quadruplex DNAs with large intensity enhancements (up to ~1800 fold). Moreover, X-2 displayed good selectivity to G-Quadruplex DNAs. In contrast, dye X-3 with the smaller aromatic group had much lower fluorescence enhancements and poor selectivity to G-Quadruplex DNAs, suggesting that the suitably sized aromatic ring was essential for the interaction with G-Quadruplex. Further binding studies suggested that X-2 mainly bound on G-quartet surface through end-stacking mode. Cytotoxicity assay showed that both of the two dyes showed good anti-proliferative activities against the cancer cell lines and less cytotoxicity in non-malignant cell lines, which were better than a standard drug 5-fluorouracil. In addition, living cell imaging was also studied and demonstrated the potential applications of the new dye X-2 in bioassays and cell imaging.
Circular dichroism, G-quadruplex structure, DNA folding, Ligand binding, Pharmaceutical, Biochemistry