The role of isoaspartate in fibrillation and its prevention by Protein-L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase
Tanaya Chatterjee, Gaurav Das, Barun K. Chatterjee, Jesmita Dhar, Surajit Ghosh, Pinak Chakrabarti
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Isomerization of aspartate to isoaspartate (isoAsp) on aging causes protein damage and malfunction. Protein-L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) performs a neuroprotective role by repairing such residues. A hexapeptide, Val-Tyr-Pro-(isoAsp)-His-Ala (VA6), a substrate of PIMT, is shown to form fibrils, while the normal Asp-containing peptide does not. Considering the role of PIMT against epileptic seizure, the combined effect of PIMT and two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (valproic acid and stiripentol) was investigated for anti-fibrillation activity. Structural/functional modulations due to the binding of AEDs to PIMT were investigated using biophysical techniques. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay and microscopic methods were employed to study fibril formation by VA6. In vitro experiments with PC12 cells were carried out with PIMT/AEDs.ThT assay indicated reduction of fibrillation of VA6 by PIMT. AEDs stabilize PIMT, bind close to the cofactor binding site, possibly exerting allosteric effect, increase the enzymatic activity, and anti-fibrillation efficacy. Furthermore, Aβ42, implicated in Alzheimer's disease, undergoes β-sheet to α-helix transition in presence of PIMT. Studies with PC12 derived neurons showed that PIMT and PIMT/AEDs exerted neuroprotective effect against anti-NGF induced neurotoxicity. This was further validated against neurotoxicity induced by Aβ42 in primary rat cortical neurons. The study provides a new perspective to the role isoAsp in protein fibrillation, PIMT in its prevention and AEDs in enhancing the activity of the enzyme.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Ligand binding, Protein folding, Thermal stability, Thermodynamics, Biochemistry