Towards environmental friendly multi-step processing of efficient mixed-cation mixed halide perovskite solar cells from chemically bath deposited lead sulphide
Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite is the most promising active layer for new generation of solar cells. Despite of highly efficient perovskite active layer conventionally fabricated by spin coating methods, the need for using toxic solvents like dimethylformamide (DMF) required for dissolving low soluble metal precursors as well as the difficulties for upscaling the process have restricted their practical development. To deal with these shortcomings, in this work, lead sulphide as the lead metal precursor was produced by aqueous chemical bath deposition. Subsequently, PbS films were chemically converted to PbI2 and finally to mixed-cation mixed halide perovskite films. The microstructural, optical and solar cell performance of mixed cation mixed halide perovskite films were examined. Results show that controlling the morphology of PbI2 platelets achieved from PbS precursor films enabled efficient conversion to final perovskite films. Using this processing technique, smooth and pin hole-free perovskite films having columnar grains of about 800 nm and a bandgap of 1.55 eV were produced. The solar cell performance consisting of such perovskite layers gave rise to a notable power conversion efficiency of 11.35% under standard solar conditions. The proposed processing technique is very promising towards an environmentally friendly method for the production of large-scale high efficient perovskite solar cells.
Solar cell, spin coating method, PbS film, power conversion efficiency