Controlling in Vitro Insulin Amyloidosis with Stable Peptide Conjugates: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study
Narendra Kumar Mishra, R. N. V. Krishna Deepak, Ramasubbu Sankararamakrishnan, Sandeep Verma
Journal of Physical Chemistry B
Insulin aggregation, to afford amyloidogenic polypeptide fibrils, is an energetically driven, well-studied phenomenon, which presents interesting biological ramifications. These aggregates are also known to form around insulin injection sites and in diabetic patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease. Such occurrences force considerable reduction in hormone activity and are often responsible for necrotic deposits in diabetic patients. Changes in physicochemical environment, such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, and mechanical agitation, affect insulin fibrillation, which also presents intrigue from the structural viewpoint. Several reports have tried to unravel underlying mechanisms concerning the aggregation process taking into account a three aromatic amino acid patch PheB24-PheB25-TyrB26 located in the C-terminal part of the B chain, identified as a key site for human insulin–receptor interaction. The present study describes design and inhibitory effects of novel peptide conjugates toward fibrillation of insulin as investigated by thioflavin T assay, circular dichroism, and AFM. Possible interaction of insulin with peptide-based fibrillation inhibitors reveals an important role of hydrophobic interactions in the inhibition process. Molecular dynamics simulation studies demonstrate that inhibitor D4interacts with insulin residues from the helix and the C-terminal extended segment of chain B. These studies present a novel approach for the discovery of stable, peptide-based ligands as novel antiamyloidogenic agents for insulin aggregation.
Circular dichroism, Protein folding, Biochemistry