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Since circular dichroism is an absorption technique based on Beer’s Law, the sample concentration and path length are critical to obtaining good CD data.
Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique based on the Beer-Lambert equation and therefore, the sample concentration is critical to obtaining good fluorescence data.
Raman scatter is about a million times less intense than Rayleigh scatter. Therefore, to obtain Raman spectra, it is necessary to prevent the Rayleigh scatter overpowering the weaker Raman scatter.
To calibrate the circular dichroism scale on any J-Series CD spectrometer requires the use of standard reference material; we recommend the ammonium salt of camphor sulfonic acid* which is accurate and very stable.