Flavonoids increase melanin production and reduce proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells by blocking endolysosomal/melanosomal TPC2
Two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) resides in endolysosomal membranes but also in lysosome-related organelles such as the melanin producing melanosomes. Gain-of-function polymorphisms in hTPC2 are associated with decreased melanin production and blond hair color. Vice versa genetic ablation of TPC2 increases melanin production. We show here an inverse correlation between melanin production and melanoma proliferation, migration, and invasion due to the dual activity of TPC2 in endolysosomes and melanosomes. Our results are supported by both genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of TPC2. Mechanistically, our data show that loss/block of TPC2 results in reduced protein levels of MITF, a major regulator of melanoma progression, but an increased activity of the melanin-generating enzyme tyrosinase. TPC2 inhibition thus provides a twofold benefit in melanoma prevention and treatment by increasing, through interference with tyrosinase activity, the synthesis of UV blocking melanin in melanosomes and by decreasing MITF-driven melanoma progression by increased GSK3β-mediated MITF degradation.
TPC2, endolysosomal membrane, protein,MITF,melonoma