Structure, functional properties and iron bioavailability of Pneumatophorus japonicus myoglobin and its glycosylation products
Developing safe and efficient iron supplements is significant for the alleviation of iron-deficient anemia (IDA). Myoglobin (Mb) is a heme-protein rich in bioavailable iron. Pneumatophorus japonicus (P. japonicus), one important economic fish in China, contain a high Mb level in its dark meat normally discarded during processing. The present study aimed to determine the structure, physicochemical properties, and iron bioavailability of Mb extracted from P. japonicus. Meanwhile, the effects of glycosylation, a commonly applied chemical modification of proteins, on these parameters were evaluated. Using Box-Behnken design, the optimal conditions for Mb-chitosan glycosylation were obtained: 45.07 °C, pH 6.10 and Mb/chitosan mass ratio of 6.29. The structure and functional properties of the glycosylated Mb (Mb-gly) were investigated. Compared with the original Mb, Mb-gly obtained a more ordered secondary structure. The surface hydrophobicity of Mb-gly was found to be decreased together with the observations of elevated water solubility. Moreover, glycosylation enhanced the Mb antioxidant capacity, and improved its stability in enzymatic digestion system. Regarding to the iron bioavailability, the cellular uptake of Mb‑iron was significantly higher than FeSO4, and further elevated by glycosylation. These results provided a basis for the development of Mb-based iron supplements, promoting the utilization of fish-processing industries wastes.
Glycosylation, myoglobin Chitosan