Thermal denaturation analysis of super thermostable cellulase using a TC-700P

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Introduction

The thermodynamic properties and secondary structure of proteins reveal important information regarding their structure and therefore, their function. While differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and CD spectroscopy are both often used to measure the thermal denaturation of proteins, CD spectroscopy has several advantages over DSC. For example, CD spectra can be measured using lower protein concentrations of proteins at various pHs and in a wider range of solvent conditions. However, CD spectra cannot typically be measured at temperatures above 100°C because of the boiling point limit of aqueous-based solutions.

Temperature controller

JASCO has therefore developed the TC-700/700PC high pressure/high temperature measurement sample chamber for high temperature measurements above 100°C. The TC- 700 allows for CD spectra to be measured at temperatures up to 170°C by pressurizing the sample solution to 1 MPa using commercially available N2 gas. CD measurements probing the thermal denaturation of super thermostable proteins can now be measured using the TC-700.

TC-700 sample holder

This application note describes the thermal denaturation analysis of super thermostable cellulose using the TC-700PC and the Denaturation Analysis program.

Experimental

Measurement Conditions 
Data acquisition interval0.1 nm
Spectral bandwidth1 nm
Response time2 sec
Temperature interval*0.1°C
Path Length10 mm
Scan speed100 nm/min
Pressure0.8 MPa
Temperature slope*1°C/min

*For CD thermal denaturation curve monitored at 220 nm.

1.2 mg/mL of super thermostable cellulose in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0) was diluted with distilled water to the desired concentrations and measured using the J-1500 and TC-700PC.

Keywords

Thermal denaturation, thermal stability, circular dichroism, J-1500, TC-700/700PC, Denaturation Analysis, super thermostable cellulase

Result

The CD spectra of 0.01 mg/mL super thermostable cellulase was measured at 45, 80, 100 and 120°C and is shown in Figure 1. Super thermostable cellulase maintains its activity at temperatures up to 90°C, which is consistent with our data illustrating that the thermal denaturation of the protein can only be seen for temperatures above 100°C.

Figure 1. Far-UV (195-260 nm) CD spectra of 0.01 mg/mL of super thermostable cellulose at 45°C (red), 80°C (blue), 100°C (yellow) and 120°C (green).

CD measurements were also obtained at 220 nm to probe the thermal denaturation of super thermostable cellulase. The result and analysis using the Denaturation Analysis program are shown in Figure 2. Consistent with Figure 1, there is a sharp decrease in the CD value at temperatures over 100°C, indicating the loss of secondary structure and denaturation of the protein above 100°C. The melting temperature (Tm) of super thermostable cellulase was calculated by the Denaturation Analysis software and found to be 106.3°C.

Figure 1. Thermal denaturation results for 0.025 mg/mL super thermostable cellulase

Conclusion

This application note illustrates that by using the TC-700/700PC with the J-1500 CD spectrometer, thermal denaturation curves can be measured at temperatures above 100°C to test thermostable proteins with high melting temperatures.

About the Author

Leah Pandiscia received her PhD from Drexel University where she studied Biophysical Chemistry. She is a Spectroscopy Applications Scientist at JASCO.