Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Compounds Isolated from Tunisian Lichens Species
Mohamed Mendili, Ayda Khadhri, Jouda Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, Anna Andolfi, Immacolata Tufano, Samira Aschi-Smiti, Marina DellaGreca
Chemistry & Biodiversity
The lichen's special symbiotic structure enables it to produce bioactive substances. They have historically been recognized for their aesthetic and medicinal benefits. Furthermore, in recent years, they have performed in various fields, including perfumery, dyeing, and pharmacology due to their rich secondary metabolites. From our study, four compounds were isolated from organic extracts of Parmotrema hypoleucinum, Roccella phycopsis, and Xanthoria parietina and identified by spectroscopic investigation as atranorin, (+)-iso-usnic acid, methyl orsellinate, and parietin, respectively. The anti-inflammatory effects of lichens extracts, and pure compounds were evaluated on RAW 264.7 macrophages cells at different concentrations. At 25 μg/mL all treated samples did not show any effect on cell viability. Atranorin and (+)-iso-usnic acid showed an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using Griess reagent, atranorin and (+)-iso-usnic acid showed a high anti-inflammatory potential (75.99 % and 57.27 % at 25 μg/mL). On the other hand, methyl orsellinate and the organic extracts of three lichens showed good anti-inflammatory activity ranging from 29.16 % at 25 μg/mL to 86.91 % at 100 μg/mL.
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