ATR-FTIR spectrum analysis of saliva samples from COVID-19 positive patients
Adriana Martinez-Cuazitl, Gustavo J. Vazquez-Zapien, Miguel Sanchez-Brito, Jorge H. Limon-Pacheco, Melissa Guerrero-Ruiz, Francisco Garibay-Gonzalez, Raul J. Delgado-Macuil, Maria G Garcia de Jesus, Miguel A. Corona-Perezgrovas, Armando Pereyra-Talamantes, Monica M. Mata-Miranda
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest biological hazard for the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Even though numerous diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 have been proposed, new diagnosis strategies are being developed, looking for less expensive methods to be used as screening. This study aimed to establish salivary vibrational modes analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to detect COVID-19 biological fingerprints that allow the discrimination between COVID-19 and healthy patients. Clinical dates, laboratories, and saliva samples of COVID-19 patients (N = 255) and healthy persons (N = 1209) were obtained and analyzed through ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Then, a multivariate linear regression model (MLRM) was developed. The COVID-19 patients showed low SaO2, cough, dyspnea, headache, and fever principally. C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, fibrinogen, d-dimer, and ferritin were the most important altered laboratory blood tests, which were increased. In addition, changes in amide I and immunoglobulin regions were evidenced in the FTIR spectra analysis, and the MLRM showed clear discrimination between both groups. Specific salivary vibrational modes employing ATR-FTIR spectroscopy were established; moreover, the COVID-19 biological fingerprint in saliva was characterized, allowing the COVID-19 detection using an MLRM, which could be helpful for the development of new diagnostic devices.
COVID-19, coronavirus, FTIR, ATR, diagnostic test, devide