Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Cannabis sativa L. roots
Industrial Crops and Products
Cannabis sativa L. has long been exploited for multiple purposes. Whereas all parts of the shoots are extensively used and well investigated, the roots have always received less attention. The phytochemical spectrum of the roots differs significantly from the rest of the plant, as no significant amounts of cannabinoids are found, whereas triterpenes as well as phytosterols are abundantly present. To shed light on the unique phytochemistry of hemp roots and the related industrial potential, three chemovars were investigated for the secondary metabolite composition and antioxidant activities by using in vitro and in vivo methods. Five triterpenes, ten phytosterols and five aliphatic compounds were identified by GC–MS analysis. Glutinol, ß-amyrone, stigmastanol, fucosterol, stigmasta-3,5-diene, stigmasta-3,5,22-triene, and oleamide were described for the first time in cannabis root extracts. The predominant triterpenoids friedelin (0.100−0.709 mg/g) and epifriedelinol (0.059−0.205 mg/g) were quantified in dependence of chemovar, harvest times, drying conditions, and extraction efficiency with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2.