Diagenetic and shear-induced transitions of frictional strength of carbon-bearing faults and their implications for earthquake rupture dynamics in subduction zones
Shunya Kaneki, Tetsuro Hirono
Subduction-related diagenetic reactions affect fault strength and are thus important for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics in subduction zones. Carbonaceous material (CM) is found worldwide in active plate-boundary and intracontinental faults, yet the effect of its transformation on frictional strength and rupture dynamics remains unknown. We conducted high-velocity friction experiments together with organochemical analyses on CM in the form of lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite and graphite. Results clearly show that an increase in CM maturity and crystallinity leads to a decrease in the peak friction coefficient (from 0.5 to 0.2). We also infer that friction applied to low-grade CM increases its maturity, but friction applied to high-grade CM reduces its maturity. These findings suggest that both diagenetic and shear-induced transformations of CM strongly affect the frictional strength of CM-bearing faults, potentially affecting the depth-dependences of frictional strength and rupture dynamics on plate-subduction faults.
shear-induced transitions, FTIR Microscopy, Earthquake