Elucidating Structure Formation in Highly Oriented Triple Cation Perovskite Films
Telschow, Oscar, Niels Scheffczyk, Alexander Hinderhofer, Lena Merten, Ekaterina Kneschaurek, Florian Bertram, Qi Zhou, Markus Löffler, Frank Schreiber, Fabian Paulus, and Yana Vaynzof
Metal halide perovskites are an emerging class of crystalline semiconductors of great interest for application in optoelectronics. Their properties are dictated not only by their composition, but also by their crystalline structure and microstructure. While significant efforts are dedicated to the development of strategies for microstructural control, significantly less is known about the processes that govern the formation of their crystalline structure in thin films, in particular in the context of crystalline orientation. This work investigates the formation of highly oriented triple cation perovskite films fabricated by utilizing a range of alcohols as an antisolvent. Examining the film formation by in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering reveals the presence of a short-lived highly oriented crystalline intermediate, which is identified as FAI-PbI2-xDMSO. The intermediate phase templates the crystallization of the perovskite layer, resulting in highly oriented perovskite layers. The formation of this dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) containing intermediate is triggered by the selective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) when alcohols are used as an antisolvent, consequently leading to differing degrees of orientation depending on the antisolvent properties. Finally, this work demonstrates that photovoltaic devices fabricated from the highly oriented films, are superior to those with a random polycrystalline structure in terms of both performance and stability.
crystalline orientation,formation of their crystalline structure