Insights into the C-terminal Peptide Binding Specificity of the PDZ domain of neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase. Characterization of the Interaction with the tight-junction protein Claudin-3
Javier Merino-Gracia, Carlos Costas-Insua, María Ángeles Canales, Ignacio Rodríguez-Crespo
The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, displays a PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain located at its N terminus involved in subcellular targeting. The C termini of various cellular proteins insert within the binding groove of this PDZ domain and determine the subcellular distribution of neuronal NOS (nNOS). The molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood because the PDZ domain of nNOS can apparently exhibit class I, class II, and class III binding specificity. In addition, it has been recently suggested that the PDZ domain of nNOS binds with very low affinity to the C termini of target proteins, and a necessary simultaneous lateral interaction must take place for binding to occur. We describe herein that the PDZ domain of nNOS can behave as a bona fideclass III PDZ domain and bind to C-terminal sequences with acidic residues at the P−2position with low micromolar binding constants. Binding to C-terminal sequences with a hydrophobic residue at the P−2 position plus an acidic residue at the P−3 position (class II) can also occur, although interactions involving residues extending up to the P−7 position mediate this type of binding. This promiscuous behavior also extends to its association to class I sequences, which must display a Glu residue at P−3 and a Thr residue at P−2. By means of site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy, we have been able to identify the residues involved in each specific type of binding and rationalize the mechanisms used to recognize binding partners. Finally, we have analyzed the high affinity association of the PDZ domain of nNOS to claudin-3 and claudin-14, two tight junction tetraspan membrane proteins that are essential components of the paracellular barrier.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Thermal stability, Thermodynamics, Ligand binding, Biochemistry