Mirror Images of Antimicrobial Peptides Provide Reflections on Their Functions and Amyloidogenic Properties
Conan K. Wang, Gordon J. King, Anne C. Conibear, Mariana C. Ramos, Stephanie Chaousis, Sónia Troeira Henriques, David J. Craik
Enantiomeric forms of BTD-2, PG-1, and PM-1 were synthesized to delineate the structure and function of these β-sheet antimicrobial peptides. Activity and lipid-binding assays confirm that these peptides act via a receptor-independent mechanism involving membrane interaction. The racemic crystal structure of BTD-2 solved at 1.45 Å revealed a novel oligomeric form of β-sheet antimicrobial peptides within the unit cell: an antiparallel trimer, which we suggest might be related to its membrane-active form. The BTD-2 oligomer extends into a larger supramolecular state that spans the crystal lattice, featuring a steric-zipper motif that is common in structures of amyloid-forming peptides. The supramolecular structure of BTD-2 thus represents a new mode of fibril-like assembly not previously observed for antimicrobial peptides, providing structural evidence linking antimicrobial and amyloid peptides.
Circular dichroism, Stereochemistry, Biochemistry