Polyacrylonitrile/ Carbon Black nanoparticle/ Nano-Hydroxyapatite (PAN/ nCB/ HA) composite nanofibrous matrix as a potential biomaterial scaffold for bone regenerative applications
Md. Kaiser Haider, Lei Sun, Azeem Ullah, Sana Ullah, Yuji Suzuki, So young Park, Yo Kato, Yasushi Tamada, Ick Soo Kim
The chemical resemblance of HA to natural bone has led to a widespread research approach to use synthetic HA as a bone substitute and replacement in biomedical application. Nanofibrous composites comprised of bioactive HA has been considered as a promising material for bone regeneration. However, the inadequate mechanical performance by HA agglomeration on nanofiber polymer matrix during electrospinning is a demanding challenge. In this study, we fabricated composite nanofibrous scaffold from the blends of PAN, nCB, and HA via electrospinning to observe the effect of nCB on the membrane properties. All the prepared samples were characterized by SEM-EDX, TEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, water contact angle, swelling, and tensile strength test. Mineralized samples were also characterized by SEM-EDX, FTIR, XRD, and XPS. Incorporation of nCB reduced the average diameter of nanofibers without any significant changes in surface morphology in PAN/ nCB scaffold. EDX spectra demonstrated an incremental increase in HA components with an increase in the amount of HA loading. TEM micrographs revealed dispersed nCB on the nanofibrous structure. Significant improvement in mechanical performance was observed in PAN/ nCB/ HA compared to PAN/ HA scaffolds. Although an increase in the amount of HA in PAN/ nCB/ HA caused a reduction in the tensile strength and Young's modulus, the values were still greater than those without nCB. PAN/ nCB/ HA composite scaffold showed excellent mineralization of HA (Ca/P = 1.68) with platelet-like clustered protrusions (typical HA morphology) after incubation in SBF. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells showed excellent proliferation and adhesion on our prepared membranes. Our findings have demonstrated that nCB can strengthen the HA-based polymeric nanofibers and such biocompatible composites have strong potential to be used as bone and other hard tissue restoring materials.
Bone tissue engineering, carbon black nanoparticles, hydroxyapatite, polyacrylonitrile, biomimetic mineralization