Possible Contribution of Phosphate to the Pathogenesis of Chronic Kidney Disease in Dolphins

April 4, 2023


Possible Contribution of Phosphate to the Pathogenesis of Chronic Kidney Disease in Dolphins


Jahan, Nourin, Hiroyuki Ohsaki, Kiyoko Kaneko, Asadur Rahman, Takeshi Nishiyama, Makoto Koizumi, Shuichiro Yamanaka, Kento Kitada, Yuki Sugiura, Kenji Matsui, Takashi Yokoo, Takayuki Hamano, Makoto Kuro-o, Takuya Itou, Miwa Suzuki, Keiichi Ueda, and Akira Nishiyama




Scientific Reports


This study aimed to investigate whether phosphate contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dolphins. Renal necropsy tissue of an aged captive dolphin was analyzed and in vitro experiments using cultured immortalized dolphin proximal tubular (DolKT-1) cells were performed. An older dolphin in captivity died of myocarditis, but its renal function was within the normal range until shortly before death. In renal necropsy tissue, obvious glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes were not observed except for renal infarction resulting from myocarditis. However, a computed tomography scan showed medullary calcification in reniculi. Micro area X-ray diffractometry and infrared absorption spectrometry showed that the calcified areas were primarily composed of hydroxyapatite. In vitro experiments showed that treatment with both phosphate and calciprotein particles (CPPs) resulted in cell viability loss and lactate dehydrogenase release in DolKT-1 cells. However, treatment with magnesium markedly attenuated this cellular injury induced by phosphate, but not by CPPs. Magnesium dose-dependently decreased CPP formation. These data support the hypothesis that continuous exposure to high phosphate contributes to the progression of CKD in captive-aged dolphins. Our data also suggest that phosphate-induced renal injury is mediated by CPP formation in dolphins, and it is attenuated by magnesium administration.




chronic kidney disease in dolphins