Therapeutic evaluation of HIV transduction basic domain-conjugated superoxide dismutase solution on suppressive effects of the formation of peroxynitrite and expression of COX-2 in murine skin
Tsang-Pai Liu, Yi-Ping Chen, Chih-Ming Chou, Ting-Ting Chiu, Chien-Tsu Chen
Journal of Biomedical Science
Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the skin is regulated by antioxidant defenses. The inflammatory states of skin diseases which range from acute rashes to chronic conditions are related to the level of ROS. The involvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in restoring the antioxidant capacity can then neutralize the inflammatory response. We found that denatured Tat-SOD formulated in an aqueous medium could be delivered into mouse skin and the penetration signals of Tat-SOD were detected in the epidermis and dermis. According to immunohistochemical staining, Tat-SOD successfully suppressed inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), the expression of sodium nitroferricyanide (SNP)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitrotyrosine proteins. In nerve growth factor (NGF) induced differentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, we demonstrated that the denatured Tat-SOD regained its antioxidant activity and effectively protected PC12 cells from DNA fragmentation induced by paraquat. Using a luciferase reporter assay, the data was shown Tat-SOD protected PC12 cells from ROS damage, through suppression of COX-2 or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity occurred at the transcriptional level. We showed that Tat-SOD inhibited SNP-induced COX-2 expression similarly to celecoxib and prevented the formation of peroxynitrite as 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. The results suggest that denatured Tat-SOD solution may perform potential protein therapy for patients suffering from disorders related to ROS.
Circular dichroism, Medicinal