Evaluation of binding and inhibition mechanism of dietary phytochemicals with sphingosine kinase 1: Towards targeted anticancer therapy
Preeti Gupta, Taj Mohammad, Rashmi Dahiya, Sonam Roy, Omar Mohammed Ali Noman, Mohamed F. Alajmi, Afzal Hussain, Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) has recently gained attention as a potential drug target for its association with cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we have investigated the binding affinity of dietary phytochemicals viz., ursolic acid, capsaicin, DL-α tocopherol acetate, quercetin, vanillin, citral, limonin and simvastatin with the SphK1. Docking studies revealed that all these compounds bind to the SphK1 with varying affinities. Fluorescence binding and isothermal titration calorimetric measurements suggested that quercetin and capsaicin bind to SphK1 with an excellent affinity, and significantly inhibits its activity with an admirable IC50 values. The binding mechanism of quercetin was assessed by docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies for 100 ns in detail. We found that quercetin acts as a lipid substrate competitive inhibitor, and it interacts with important residues of active-site pocket through hydrogen bonds and other non-covalent interactions. Quercetin forms a stable complex with SphK1 without inducing any significant conformational changes in the protein structure. In conclusion, we infer that quercetin and capsaicin provide a chemical scaffold to develop potent and selective inhibitors of SphK1 after required modifications for the clinical management of cancer.
Fluorescence, Protein structure, Ligand binding, Absorption, Quantitation, Biochemistry