Precise Control of Localized Surface Plasmon Wavelengths Is Needed for Effective Enhancement of Triplet–Triplet Annihilation-Based Upconversion Emission
Shota Jin, Kosuke Sugawa, Naoto Takeshima, Hironobu Tahara, Shuto Igari, Satoshi Yoshinari, Yuri Kurihara, Shiryu Watanabe, Masami Enoki, Kenta Sato, Wataru Inoue, Kyo Tokuda, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Ryuzi Katoh, Kouichi Takase, Hiroaki Ozawa, Toshiya Okazaki○, Takayuki Watanabe○, Joe Otsuki
In this study, we demonstrate that the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance of metal nanoparticles, depending strictly on the generating wavelength of LSP resonance, can have both beneficial enhancement and harmful quenching effects on a triplet–triplet annihilation-based upconversion (TTA-UC) emission. When the LSP resonance band of anisotropic silver nanoprisms spectrally overlapped with the photoexcitation wavelength of a sensitizer and the fluorescence of an emitter, an increase in the photoexcitation efficiency and an acceleration of the radiative decay rate were respectively induced, resulting in an effective enhancement in the TTA-UC emission. Furthermore, the overlapping with the photoexcitation wavelength led to a significant decrease (93%) in the threshold light excitation intensity, which greatly enhances the figure-of-merit in TTA-UC systems. However, when the LSP resonance band overlapped with the phosphorescence band of the sensitizer, the TTA-UC emission was extremely quenched, accompanied by the enhanced phosphorescence and the decreased phosphorescence lifetime. These results suggest that the decrease in the TTA-UC emission is a result of the competition between the triplet–triplet energy transfer to the emitter and the LSP-induced nonradiative energy transfer to the silver nanoprisms from the triplet-excited sensitizer. This discovery of the conflicting effects of LSP resonance provides an important guideline: a precise adjustment of LSP resonance wavelengths is needed for the efficient enhancement of TTA-UC emission. This requirement is different from those of other fluorescence systems such as single downconverted fluorophores and lanthanide-based upconversion nanoparticles.
Nanostructures, Materials, Fluorescence, Photoluminescence, Optical properties, Upconversion