Sustained antibacterial coating with graphene oxide ultrathin film combined with cationic surface-active agents in a wet environment
Hirofumi Miyaji, Yukimi Kanemoto, Asako Hamamoto, Kanako Shitomi, Erika Nishida, Akihito Kato, Tsutomu Sugaya, Saori Tanaka, Natsuha Aikawa, Hideya Kawasaki, Syun Gohda & Hironobu Ono
Antimicrobial surfactants contained in mouthrinse have excellent efficacy, but are not retained on the tooth surface (are rinsed away) due to their low water resistance and thus do not exhibit sustained antibacterial activity. We have developed a new coating method using graphene oxide (GO) that retains the surfactant on the tooth surface even after rinsing with water, thus providing a sustained antibacterial effect. Ultra-thin films of GO and an antimicrobial agent were prepared by (1) applying GO to the substrate surface, drying, and thoroughly rinsing with water to remove excess GO to form an ultrathin film (almost a monolayer, transparent) on the substrate surface, then (2) applying antimicrobial cationic surface active agents (CSAAs) on the GO film to form a composite coating film (GO/CSAA). GO/CSAA formation was verified by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ζ-potential and contact angle measurements. GO/CSAA was effective at inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens for up to 7 days of storage in water, and antibacterial activity was recovered by reapplication of the CSAA. Antibacterial GO/CSAA films were also formed on a tooth substrate. The results suggest that GO/CSAA coatings are effective in preventing oral infections.
antibacterial, graphene, ultrathin film, environment