The SH3 domain of Caskin1 binds to lysophosphatidic acid suggesting a direct role for the lipid in intracellular signaling
Kitti Koprivanacz, Orsolya Tőke, Balázs Besztercei, Tünde Juhász, László Radnai, Balázs Merő, Judith Mihály, Mária Péter, Gábor Balogh, László Vígh, László Buday, Károly Liliom
Src homology 3 or SH3 domains constitute one of the most common protein domains in signal transduction, generally characterized by their binding to proline-rich sequences on interacting signaling proteins. Caskin1, a scaffold protein regulating cortical actin filaments, enriched in neural synapses in mammals, has an atypical SH3 domain. Key aromatic residues necessary for ligand binding that are present in canonical SH3 domains are missing from Caskin1 SH3. In concordance, proline-rich interacting partner could not be identified yet. Based on previous reports that several SH3 domains are able to bind phospholipids, we sought for lipid interacting partners of the SH3 domain of human Caskin1. We investigated the signaling-born lysophospholipid mediators, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) as potential binding partners for this SH3 domain. These lipid mediators as first messengers activate G protein-coupled receptors. They also exert several G protein-coupled receptor-independent functions but their intracellular target proteins are mostly unknown. Here we provide evidence that the SH3 domain of human Caskin1 selectively binds to LPA in vitro. The binding strength and stoichiometry depend on the association-state of the lipid, with nanomolar affinity to LPA-containing membraneous surfaces. The amino acids involved in the interaction are located in a β-strand structure and are distinct from those corresponding to the canonical proline-rich ligand-binding groove in the SH3 domain of Src kinase. Our results suggest that the SH3 domain of human Caskin1 is a lipid-binding domain rather than a proline-rich motif interacting domain.
Circular dichroism, Secondary structure, Vesicle interactions, Biochemistry